Amniotic Tissue

PURION® Processed dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) contains extracellular matrix, stimulates multiple cell types to migrate and proliferate, and acts as a Stem Cell Magnet™ drawing mesenchymal stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells from tissues to the site of injury.

Did you know?

The historical use of various clinical applications of amniotic membranes began relatively early in the 20th century.

Benefits from Amniotic Fluid

Amniotic fluid has a variety of homologous uses as in utero it naturally functions to protect and cushion, reduce inflammation and enhance mobility.2,6 It is a dynamically changing biological fluid that changes in both volume and composition throughout the course of gestation and the fluid normally ranges from 25 mL at 10 weeks to about 400 mL at the time of delivery. 

Composition of amniotic fluid. Key elements of amniotic fluid include growth factors, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, electrolytes, and other nutrients, as well as hyaluronic acid (HA), a principle component of viscosity and lubrication in synovial fluid.

What are the functions of Amniotic Fluid in utero?

  1. An extension of the fetal extracellular compartment.

  2. A connection between the intracoelemic and extracoelemic components of the developinginfant.

  3. A physiologic buffer for various extra-fetal compounds.

  4. Modulation of fluid and electrolyte transport between the mother and fetus across fetal andplacental membranes.

  5. Nutritional support of the fetus.

  6. Provision of a supportive fluid cushion to the developing fetus, allowing fetal movement andgrowth.

  7. Protective functions provided by the inclusion of multiple growth factors and biologicalmolecules.

  8. Provide antimicrobial effectors that protect the fetus

Concentrations

Concentrations of the various composition of amniotic fluid vary over the course of gestation, frequently changing near the time of delivery.  

Sozanskii measured the concentrations of various compounds in pregnancy and compared serum and AF concentrations. He found that “in 136 women at various terms of pregnancy…the biochemical composition of amniotic fluid changed as follows: there was a rise of urea, rest nitrogen, and of the total protein; sugar concentration dropped; chloride level remained unchanged.”

Campbell did a similar measurement set and found comparable results. “Levels of sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were significantly higher in amniotic fluid whilst chloride, urea, bilirubin, protein, albumin, glucose, creatinine, calcium and phosphate were present in higher concentrations in extraembryonic coelomic fluid. All differences in concentration were significant (P less than 0.05; unpaired t-test). No relation was demonstrated between electrolyte concentrations in amniotic fluid or coelomic fluid and stage of gestation.”

Do's & Don'ts

The Do's

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The Don'ts

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Biological activity

Many of the above compounds and substances have well characterized biological activities. While the exact mechanism of activity is known for individual compounds, the subtle interrelationship of how these agents interact is continuously being researched. Further, various pathologic states have been associated with disregulation of the amounts and concentrations of these materials.